Monday, February 14, 2022

Learning Java: Intorduction

Hello everyone !

Ready to learn Java Programming !

What is Java:

Java is a very efficient and versatile programming language which can be used in any computer such as windows, linux, android, ios etc. That is why they call Java a platform independent programming language. Although there are other popular programming languages used by the programmers, Java is still being used for its efficiency in web development. Some other popular programming languages are Python, C++, C#, Perl, Ruby, PHP etc.

We intend to discuss about coding with Java in this learning article.

Java is a high-level, class-based, object-oriented programming language that is designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is a general-purpose programming language intended to let programmers write once, run anywhere (WORA), meaning that compiled Java code can run on all platforms that support Java without the need to recompile. Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode that can run on any Java virtual machine (JVM) regardless of the underlying computer architecture. The syntax of Java is similar to C and C++, but has fewer low-level facilities than either of them. The Java runtime provides dynamic capabilities (such as reflection and runtime code modification) that are typically not available in traditional compiled languages. As of 2019, Java was one of the most popular programming languages in use according to GitHub, particularly for client–server web applications, with a reported 9 million developers.

History of Java:

Java was originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems and released in May 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems' Java platform. The original and reference implementation Java compilers, virtual machines, and class libraries were originally released by Sun under proprietary licenses. As of May 2007, in compliance with the specifications of the Java Community Process, Sun had relicensed most of its Java technologies under the GPL-2.0-only license. Oracle offers its own HotSpot Java Virtual Machine, however the official reference implementation is the OpenJDK JVM which is free open-source software and used by most developers and is the default JVM for almost all Linux distributions.

Before Java was evolved there were other programming language in use, such as: FORTRAN, Basic, Visual Basic, C programming. Because of some limitations in those languages Sun Microsystems engineers developed Java to overcome those limitations. Java is also called a high level programming language as it has similarity to spoken words of humans. It is a procedural language as it follows an order of a set of commands. Now java is owned by Oracle.

James Gosling, Mike Sheridan, and Patrick Naughton initiated the Java language project in June 1991. Java was originally designed for interactive television, but it was too advanced for the digital cable television industry at the time. The language was initially called Oak after an oak tree that stood outside Gosling's office. Later the project went by the name Green and was finally renamed Java, from Java coffee, a type of coffee from Indonesia. Gosling designed Java with a C/C++-style syntax that system and application programmers would find familiar.

Sun Microsystems released the first public implementation as Java 1.0 in 1996. It promised write once, run anywhere (WORA) functionality, providing no-cost run-times on popular platforms. Fairly secure and featuring configurable security, it allowed network and file-access restrictions. Major web browsers soon incorporated the ability to run Java applets within web pages, and Java quickly became popular. The Java 1.0 compiler was re-written in Java by Arthur van Hoff to comply strictly with the Java 1.0 language specification. With the advent of Java 2 (released initially as J2SE 1.2 in December 1998 – 1999). New versions had multiple configurations built for different types of platforms. J2EE included technologies and APIs for enterprise applications typically run in server environments, while J2ME featured APIs optimized for mobile applications. The desktop version was renamed J2SE. In 2006, for marketing purposes, Sun renamed new J2 versions as Java EE, Java ME, and Java SE, respectively.

In 1997, Sun Microsystems approached the ISO/IEC JTC 1 standards body and later the Ecma International to formalize Java, but it soon withdrew from the process. Java remains a de facto standard, controlled through the Java Community Process. At one time, Sun made most of its Java implementations available without charge, despite their proprietary software status. Sun generated revenue from Java through the selling of licenses for specialized products such as the Java Enterprise System.

On November 13, 2006, Sun released much of its Java virtual machine (JVM) as free and open-source software (FOSS), under the terms of the GPL-2.0-only license. On May 8, 2007, Sun finished the process, making all of its JVM's core code available under free software/open-source distribution terms, aside from a small portion of code to which Sun did not hold the copyright.

Sun's vice-president Rich Green said that Sun's ideal role with regard to Java was as an evangelist. Following Oracle Corporation's acquisition of Sun Microsystems in 2009–10, Oracle has described itself as the steward of Java technology with a relentless commitment to fostering a community of participation and transparency. This did not prevent Oracle from filing a lawsuit against Google shortly after that for using Java inside the Android SDK (see the Android section).

On April 2, 2010, James Gosling resigned from Oracle.

In January 2016, Oracle announced that Java run-time environments based on JDK 9 will discontinue the browser plugin.

Java software runs on everything from laptops to data centers, game consoles to scientific supercomputers.

Some other features of Java programming language:

1. Java is object oriented programming language

2. It is platform independent (write once and run anywhere)

3. It is a robust language where exception handling is easier

4. It is secure

5. It is multi-threaded can execute different thread simultaneously.

The next lesson will be how we can start learning Java programming by installing Java Development Kit (JDK) and Integrated Development Environment (IDE).


Class Notes:

1. A high-level language in computer programming is the language that is comprehended by humans. A low-level language is the language that is understood by the computer.

2. The process of compilation: Compiling is the process of transforming a high level language into a low level language. A high level language is closer to English. A low level language is closer to what the computer understands.

Compiler is a program. Compiler takes the recipe (code) for a new program (written in a high level language) and transforms this code into a new language (Machine Language) that can be understood by the computer itself. This "machine language" is difficult to impossible for humans to read and understand, thus the need for "high level languages" such as Java or C.

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